Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Who am I? What defines a person or an object? What is an identity? Merriam-Webster defines identity as a distinguishing character or personality of an individual (Identity). Nationality, family, gender, socioeconomic level, accomplishments, downfalls, personality, and physical appearance are qualities that characterize Americans. When each of these characteristics are viewed together, a unique individual is formed. However, in Mary Shellys Frankenstein, Victor Frankensteins creation is not identified by all of these characteristics. He is not defined by many of them because they do not exist in his life. The domestic void in the creatureÃ¢â¬â¢s life creates a barrier between him and the rest of civilization. VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s creationÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, the place in which a person learns is not an identifying characteristic. If a human being is educated in Oregon, but is from Washington, they are not an Oregonian; they are defined as a Washingtonian. A person with no ancestral heritage also does not have a familial identity. They are nobodyÃ¢â¬â¢s son, daughter, brother, or sister. Every human being is created by two people and will always be characterized as their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s son or daughter; they can always be identified by their relationship to the people who created them. His creator does not wish to have a relationship with him. The creature recalls that he has no father [who] watched [his] infant days [and] no mother had blessed [him] with smiles and caresses (81). Without mutual bonds (81) with others, the creature has an alienated existence from human beings; he is not anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s son. The creature longs to be part of a domestic circle, like that of the De Lacy family. VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s initial reaction to his creation is the first taste of what the world has to offer the creature, an identity. However, this is not the identity that the creature wishes to posses. He desires to be someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s son, yet when he goes to Victor for this relationship, he is rejected. In the beginning of the creatureÃ¢â¬â¢s existence he has one handÃ¢â¬ ¦stretched out (35) to reach towards his creator. This is parallel to a Sistine Chapel painting in which Adam reaches out to God. However, there is a significant difference in theShow MoreRelatedMary Shellys Frankenstein and the Consideration of Psychological Traumas Women Face in the Lack of Control Over Their Reproductive Organs1798 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Mary Shellys Frankenstein and the Consideration of Psychological Traumas Women Face in the Lack of Control Over Their Reproductive Organs I. Objective The objective of this study is to examine Mary Shellys work Frankenstein and to consider the psychological traumas women face in the lack of control over their reproductive organs. II. Introduction Women throughout the world have experienced psychological trauma over the lack of control over their reproductive organs and whether this traumaRead MoreMary Shellor Frankenstein Critical Analysis999 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMary Shelly wrote a novel called Frankenstein, showing the beauty and terror of scary stories. Mostly, Victor Frankenstein created this monster, which left him suffering the pain of his monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s actions and enduring the internal madness in his heart. As a result, Victor died with a pain of misery and destruction in his own heart. The connection between suffering and VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s life showed a much darker side, relating to Mary Shelly. Mostly, she found herself using Frankenstein as a way to displayRead MoreEssay on Perception in Mary ShellyÃ ´s Frankenstein828 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthrough the senses.Ã¢â¬ In Marry ShellyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein, perception plays a key part in the monstersÃ¢â¬â¢ icy demise. Not only is the story affected by how the villagers perceive the monster, but the readersÃ¢â¬â¢ perception, like in any literary work, plays the role of ultimate judge. Most responses to Frankenstein are derived directly from pop culture.The green dude with bolts, right? or Oh yeahÃ¢â¬ ¦ I love Frankenberry cereal! Soon, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll realize that Frankenstein is not the monster, but actuallyRead MoreLack of Knowledge Thesis Examination2465 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesLack of Knowledge Jay Stuckey Knowledge is power. This is a famous phrase that has a lot of truth to it. What if the knowledge is incomplete? Is it still powerful or just a burden? Frankenstein and his creature are a prime example of the burden brought on ones life through incomplete knowledge. Frankenstein has a great grasp of knowledge of the physical world but lacks that grasp of knowledge of the emotional world. He creates a creature with the mind of a human but with a body that is severelyRead More Lack Of Knowledge Thesis Examination Essay2356 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesKnowledge nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Ã¢â¬Å"Knowledge is power.Ã¢â¬ This is a famous phrase that has a lot of truth to it. What if the knowledge is incomplete? Is it still powerful or just a burden? Frankenstein and his creature are a prime example of the burden brought on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life through incomplete knowledge. Frankenstein has a great grasp of knowledge of the physical world but lacks that grasp of knowledge of the emotional world. He creates a creature with the mind of a human but with a body that is severelyRead MoreEssay on Accepting the Extraordinary in Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesordinary elements. However, through fiction I am transported into a world of boundless imagination and extraordinary themes. One such example is evident in my response to Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s gothic novel Frankenstein. Through fiction, Shelley invites the reader to accept the extraordinary. Firstly, we are led to believe that Victor Frankenstein is able to create life by shocking it with electricity, and to this I responded with an imaginative curiosity. But it was the consequences of the creation provoked aRead MoreNature vs. Nurture in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein1247 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescrucial as canvas in art, the philosophy of nature and nurture come together as the fundamental structure to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and genetic makeup. In the novella, Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley, the association of the exterior appearance and inner feelings are openly linked. The hideous creature that the science addict, Victor Frankenstein, makes is initially innocent yet severely deformed. His nature is to be benevolent and sympathetic, however, society only views his external appearance, which isRead MoreSummary Of Frankenstein By Judith Guest1701 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNia Gordon 6/4/15 Kaufman/10 G Band Outline Frankenstein by Mary Shelly and Ordinary People by Judith GuestÃ¢â¬â¢s both display the consistent theme of abandonment by parent guardians. Both protagonists, the Creature and Conrad, experience rejection from their parents and constantly try to search for love and attention in different aspects of society because they unfortunately can not receive it from their parents. Because no individual wants to associate with the Creature he becomes imorally and seeksRead MoreFrankenstein- Suffering of an Individual1650 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFrankenstein- Suffering of an Individual Anguish, pain, torment and suffering are all a part of our day to day lives. These may issue from a variety of causes such as great deprivation, hardships to emotional and physical loss. Many texts, such as that of Frankenstein, written by Mary Shelly in the early 1800s, depict unalleviated suffering caused by living within societal norms. However very often, these sufferings are inflicted upon people by one individual and in the case of Frankenstein,Read MoreKnowledge and Imagination in Mary Shellys Frankenstein1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTitle Ã¢â¬Å"He who knows nothing is closer to the truth than he whose mind is filled with falsehoods and errorsÃ¢â¬ .(Thomas Jefferson).In Mary Shellys Frankenstein, the theme of the sublime is featured throughout the text. It is seen in the use of knowledge, imagination, and solitariness which is the protagonists primary source of power. This perpetuates their quest for glory, revenge, and what results in their own self-destruction and dehumanization. Ultimately, the final cause being irreversible harm
Chapter 04 Long-Term Financial Planning and Growth Multiple Choice Questions 1. Phil is working on a financial plan for the next three years. This time period is referred to as which one of the following? A. financial range B. planning horizon C. planning agenda D. short-run E. current financing period 2. Atlas Industries combines the smaller investment proposals from each operational unit into a single project for planning purposes. This process is referred to as which one of the following? A. conjoining B. aggregation C. conglomeration D. appropriation E. summation 3. Which one of the following terms is applied to the financial planning method which uses the projected sales level as the basis forÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦III. Should a particular division be sold? IV. Should a new product be introduced? A. I, II, and III only B. I, II, and IV only C. I, III, and IV only D. II, III, and IV only E. I, II, III, and IV 13. Which one of the following statements concerning financial planning for a firm is correct? A. Financial planning for fixed assets is done on a segregated basis within each division. B. Financial plans often contain alternative options based on economic developments. C. Financial plans frequently contain conflicting goals. D. Financial plans assume that firms obtain no additional external financing. E. The financial planning process is based on a single set of economic assumptions. 14. You are getting ready to prepare pro forma statements for your business. Which one of the following are you most apt to estimate first as you begin this process? A. fixed assets B. current expenses C. sales forecast D. projected net income E. external financing need 15. Which one of the following statements is correct? A. Pro forma statements must assume that no new equity is issued. B. Pro forma statements are projections, not guarantees. C. Pro forma statements are limited to a balance sheet and income statement. D. Pro forma financial statements must assume that no dividends will be paid. E. Net working capital needs are excluded from pro forma computations. 16. When utilizing the percentage of sales approach, managers: I. estimate companyShow MoreRelatedCorporate Finance Notes1881 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesStudy notes By Zhipeng Yan Corporate Finance Stephen A. Ross, Randolph W. Westerfield, Jeffrey Jaffe Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance ..................................................................... 2 Chapter 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow.............................................................. 3 Chapter 3 Financial Markets and NPV: First Principles of Finance................................... 6 Chapter 4 Net Present Value....................................Read MoreNotes for Corporate Finance2082 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesCorporate Finance Notes * Chapter One: Introduce to Corporate Finance 1. Three Questions: A. What Long-term asset should be invested? Capital Budgeting B. How to raise cash for capital expenditures? Capital Structure C. How to manage short-term cash flow? Net Working Capital 2. Capital Structure: Marketing Value of Firm = MV of Debt + MV of Equity 3. Finance perspect and Accountant perspect: Finance: Cash Flow ! Accountant: A/R means profit ! 4. Sole proprietorshipRead MoreCorporate Finance69408 Words Ã |Ã 278 PagesCorporate finance P. Frantz, R. Payne, J. Favilukis FN3092, 2790092 2011 Undergraduate study in Economics, Management, Finance and the Social Sciences This subject guide is for a Level 3 course (also known as a Ã¢â¬Ë300 courseÃ¢â¬â¢) offered as part of the University of London International Programmes in Economics, Management, Finance and the Social Sciences. This is equivalent to Level 6 within the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (FHEQ). For moreRead MoreCorporate Finance4881 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesTrends of Leverage 7 2.3 Comparison of capital structure with similar companies 9 2.4 Capital expenditures and its financing 10 2.5 Important factors influencing the use of debt financing 10 2.5.1 Tax Advantage 10 2.5.2 Corporate Tax Rate 11 2.5.3 Credit rating 11 2.5.4 Interest rate 11 2.5.5 CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Industry 12 2.5.6 CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth rate 12 2.5.7 Some other arguments about Harvey Norman 12 2.6 Evidence of financial distress 13 Read MoreCorporate Finance1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesoperating earnings of the firm. The capitalization is to be made at a rate appropriate to the risk class of the firm. Growth Plans, are involved in capital structural theories in which a certain amount will be allocated for the growth plans. A finance manager should draw a plan according for the dividend policy. For Example: The firm has $10 million as equity capital and $6 million as debt capital and the firm made a profit (after tax) of $2 million, and the fund allocated to the growth plan wasRead MoreCorporate Finance - Concept Questions12247 Words Ã |Ã 49 Pagesquestions of corporate finance? a. Investment decision (capital budgeting): What long-term investment strategy should a firm adopt? b. Financing decision (capital structure): How much cash must be raised for the required investments? c. Short-term finance decision (working capital): How much short-term cash flow does company need to pay its bills. ( Describe capital structure. Capital structure is the mix of different securities used to finance a firms investmentsRead MoreFundamentals of Corporate Finance 9e82683 Words Ã |Ã 331 Pageshttp://helpyoustudy.info Chapter 01 - Introduction to Corporate Finance Chapter 01 Introduction to Corporate Finance Answer Key Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which one of the following terms is defined as the management of a firm s long-term investments? A. working capital management B. financial allocation C. agency cost analysis D. capital budgeting E. capital structure Refer to section 1.1 AACSB: N/A Difficulty: Basic Learning Objective: 1-1 Section: 1.1 Topic: Capital budgeting Read MoreCorporate Business Finance 7343 Words Ã |Ã 30 PagesCorporate Business Finance Seminar 5 Project Finance Lauren Leigh Essaram 207507339 Ruvimbo Mukorera 206525531 27 September 2010 Submitted in partial fulfilment of the duly performed requirement of International Business Finance, School of Economics and Finance, University of KwaZulu-Natal Abstract Non-recourse financing has grown in popularity, especially in developing countries. It has done so more specifically in the basic infrastructure, natural resources and also in the energyRead MoreAdvanced Corporate Finance4303 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesUniversity of Puget Sound School of Business and Leadership BUS 434 Advanced Corporate Finance Professor Alva Wright Butcher Tues-Thurs 11:00-12:20 McIntyre 107 Spring Semester 2012 Office: McIntyre 111 I Phone: 253-879-3349 FAX: 253-879-3156 Office Hours: T-Th: 1:00-1:50 Wed: 9:30-10:30 And by appointment Note that I am always willing to schedule additional office hours by appointment. I check email frequently, so that is also a goodRead MoreEssay Corporate Finance1613 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Why is corporate finance important to all managers? Corporate finance is a specific area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools as well as analyses used to make these decisions. The primary goal of corporate finance is to enhance corporate value, without taking excessive financial risks. A corporations managements primary responsibility is to maximize the shareholders wealth which translates to stock price maximization. Corporate finance provides
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
What Others Say about The Yellow Wallpaper The Yellow Wallpaper is a short story written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman in 1890 and eventually published in 1892 in the New England Magazine and in William Dean Howells collection, Great Modern American Stories (Shumaker 94). The story was original not only because of its subject matter, but also because it is written in the form of a loosely connected journal. It follows the narrators private thoughts which become increasingly more confusing. The structure consists of disjointed sentences as the narrator gradually descends more and more into her madness as her only escape from an oppressive husband and society. In The Yellow Wallpaper the narrator is a young womanÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There is no end to the different approaches presented in critiques of The Yellow Wallpaper. A prominent approach is to draw a parallel between the narrators illness and Gilmans own breakdown and subsequent disappointing therapy. Other critics use the story as analysis of how women function in a patriarchal society as well as in masculine psychological models. Elaine R. Hedges wrote the first critique of The Yellow Wallpaper in 1973 that brought the story back into popularity. Her critique focuses on the biographical approach. Hedges points out that this story is strong and unique compared to Gilmans other work, which she claims suffered from rushed deadlines (Hedges 105). Gilmans breakdown after the birth of her daughter and the disillusionment she felt at her lack of choices were the inspiration for The Yellow Wallpaper. Her own fathers abandonment and mothers detachment also contributed to the underlying theme of the story. Hedges points out the clipped style creates a controlled tension that underplays the narrators madness, but perhaps shows the narrator more sensible than the people who surround and cripple her (Hedges 106). The narrator may be insane but her arguments make sense. She is also fighting against a patriarchal medical system, symbolized by her husband, brother and Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, aShow MoreRelatedThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhen it came to rights in the eyes of the law. Also during this time, mental illnesses were not accurately researched, and since doctors werenÃ¢â¬â¢t fully aware of all the information about mental illnesses, patients did not always get the best treatment and were treated as freaks. In the short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, both of these elements are present. Gilman did a wonderful job portraying how women are not taken seriously and how lightly mental illnesses are takenRe ad MoreThe Progressive Stages Of Postpartum Depression1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesby Design Ã¢â¬Å"Life is very much more exciting now than it used to beÃ¢â¬ (Yellow Wallpaper.) Defined by the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Depression: a state of feeling sad. Simple, right? Dead wrong. Clinical depression is one of the leading psychological disorders in the US, affecting over 17.5 million Americans.(Washington) Amongst the many forms of depression, there is postpartum depression, a more uncommon one. Yellow Wallpaper, by Charlotte Gilman, is a paper in which Charlotte Gilman tells a fictionalizedRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman699 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageswriting and begin to write fifteen essays, poems, a novel, and short stories. She also became a role model for the feminist movement for her unusual image and behavior. In her intriguing short story, Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ , she portrays her feministic point of views. The narrator of Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ is an unnamed woman. She recently had a child and is going through post-partum depression. Her and her family decided to get away for the summer and stay at a mansion. John, her husband, decides toRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper Analysis872 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman The story Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ Ã is written and told in the first person and is in the form of a journal. The story itself is told from a narrator who remains nameless, and her husband John that have come to vacation in a large house after the birth of their daughter. It seems as though john believes that this getaway would be good for our Ã narrator, as she has been suffering from hysterical postpartum behaviorsRead MoreTheme Of Isolation In The Yellow Wallpaper1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ , which was published in 1892, tells a compelling story about how the narrator is taken away from her own home because her husband refuses to acknowledge that she is sick and needs actual medical treatment. She gets locked up in a room in a huge mansion, which causes her to discover her true identity. Her true identity cannot be expressed fully, which causes her to take a different path of choosing an identity of being insane. Because her husbandRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1090 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesprohibited to have a mind of their own. Charlotte Perkins Gilman the author of Ã¢â¬ËThe Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ does an exquisite job illustrating the mentality society during this time in the short story. GillmanÃ¢â¬â¢s notion often was that men and women did not have a different mindset. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢ The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ is a tale about this women who is mentally unstable and cannot recover due to her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s disbelief. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ Gilman uses feminist criticism through the dialogue, symbolism hidden in theRead MoreObsessions Always Have Meanings Essay1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the stories Ã¢â¬Å"The BirthmarkÃ¢â¬ by Nathaniel Hawthorne and Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, they are similar because they both deal with the wives being obsessed with something. Also in both stories th eir husbands are concerned and want to help them with their obsessions. The wife in Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ is obsessed with the wallpaper on the wall and sees it as another world. She believes that there is someone stuck behind the wall and is trying to get out. Tearing down the wallRead MoreComparing the Techniques Used by the Writers to Create a Sense of Fear and Tension in The Black Cat, The Red Room and The Yellow Wallpaper950 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesComparing the Techniques Used by the Writers to Create a Sense of Fear and Tension in The Black Cat, The Red Room and The Yellow Wallpaper Short stories like The Black Cat, The Red Room and The Yellow wallpaper, which were all written during the pre-1914s, were used as popular entertainment during the 19th-20th century. At that time there was no television. Today, if we wanted to be entertained by something with similar horrific content we could watch a film on TV,Read More The Power Struggle in The Yellow Wallpaper1098 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStruggle in The Yellow Wallpaper Ã Ã Ã The story The Yellow Wallpaper, by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, is a story about control. In the late 1800s, women were looked upon as having no effect on society other than bearing children and keeping house. It was difficult for women to express themselves in a world dominated by males. The men held the jobs, the men held the knowledge, the men held the key to the lock known as societyÃ - or so they thought. The narrator in The Wallpaper is under thisRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ Charlotte Perkins Gilman Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is gothic psychological short story written in journal-style with first-person narrative. Other elements used in the story are symbols, irony, foreshadowing, and imagery. Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow Wallpaper is about a woman who suffers from postpartum depression. Her husband, a physician, puts her on Ã¢â¬Å"rest cure of quiet and solitude.Ã¢â¬ (Wilson 278). This cure consisted of the narrator being confined
Customers KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s always tries to engage with their customers and future customers through various ways like its interesting advertising campaigns. Like, TV and newspaper ads and KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s also use social media such as Facebook and Twitter to approach its customers, conduct various surveys to get to know their customersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations and interests. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s always tries to create two-way engagement platforms to interact with its customers about its products as well as its CSR initiatives. Suppliers 70% -83% In KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s suppliers are another important stakeholder group. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s is follows to an ethical supply chain and Supplier Code of Conduct that all its suppliers must obey. This code requires all KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s suppliers to observe with fair labor practices and ethical business standards. These codes of conduct specially focus on environmental and health and safety issues. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s performs number of farmer development programs to engage its suppliers. The main objective of these initiatives is to reduce poverty and promote economic development, through supporting KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s K-Values and vision. For example, like in rural area of Mexico, KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s supports the sustainable production of amaranth, an ancient grain thought to be a staple in the diets of the Incas and Aztecs. Kellogg s is one of several funders of Mexico Tierra de Amaranto (MTA), which teaches community members how to grow and use the plants in cooking and how to sell that food. Thi s initiative taken byShow MoreRelatedProcessed Cheese and Kraft Foods30876 Words Ã |Ã 124 Pagesdistribution Channels(YL) 32 Cost disadvantages Independent of Scale(YL) 32 Government Policy(YL) 33 Expected Retaliation(YL) 33 Product Differentiation(YL) 33 Power of Buyers(YL) 34 Power of Suppliers(YL) 34 Threat of Substitutes(YL) 34 Intensity of Rivalry among Established Firms(YL) 35 External/ Macro Environment (KH) 36 Technological (KH) 36 Macro economical(KH) 36 Political /Legal (KH) 39 Demographic Forces(KH) 41 Global Read MoreComment on How Changes in Macro and Market Environment Forces Impact on the Level of Competition in an Industry.18606 Words Ã |Ã 75 Pagesenvironment explain the distinction between the microenvironment and the macroenvironment discuss the impact of political and legal, economic, ecological/physical environmental, social/cultural and technological forces on marketing decisions explain how to conduct environmental scanning discuss how companies respond to environmental change Political and Legal Forces The marketing environment FIGURE CHAPTER 3 73 marketing-orientated Ã¯ ¬ rm looks outwards to the environment in which it operates, adaptingRead MoreMarketing and Aesop12007 Words Ã |Ã 49 Pagesbecause of recess economy. Buyers who are retailers can have backward integration by providing their own brand. 4. Bargaining power of suppliers: Low Bargaining power of suppliers in cosmetics industry is low because there are a high number of market players and large suppliers. Moreover, Italian consumers prefer cosmetics that made from nature and there are many suppliers around the world who can offer the low price material such as Asian countries to cosmetics manufacturers. 5. Threat of substitutes:Read MoreMonsanto: Better Living Through Genetic Engineering96204 Words Ã |Ã 385 PagesThe case of CochlearÃ¢â ¢ Ã¢â¬â an Australian C A S E O N E high-technology leader Delta Faucet: Global entrepreneurship in an emerging market C A S E T W O DaimlerChrysler: Corporate governance dynamics in a global company C A S E T H R E E Gun ns and the greens: Governance issues in Tasmania C A S E F O U R Succeeding in the Sydney indie music industry C A S E F I V E Nucor in 2005 C A S E S I X News Corp in 2005: Consolidating the DirecTV acquisition C A S E S E V E N Shanghai Volkswagen: ImplementingRead MoreMarketing Management130471 Words Ã |Ã 522 Pages Marketing management Ã¢â¬â an introduction Unit structure: 1. Introduction 2. Learning Objectives 3. Marketing Management 3.1. Evolution of marketing management 3.2. The Role of Marketing 3.3. Marketing concepts 3.4. The Marketing Mix (The 4 P s Of Marketing) 3.5. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Ethics in Marketing 4. Have you understood type questions 5. Summary 6. Exercises 7. References 1. INTRODUCTION: The apex body in United States of America for the Marketing functions, AmericanRead MoreBusiness Strategies Of Tesco PLC24572 Words Ã |Ã 99 PagesUniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Regulations and Code of Practice for Taught Postgraduate Programmes. I also affirm that all reference sources have been fully acknowledged and reported. I further declare that this dissertation has not previously, in its entirety or in part, been submitted to any University apart from University of Wales in order to obtain an academic qualification. I further declare that I have fully followed all the appropriate and relevant ethical guidelines in the conduct of my research. Fur thermoreRead MoreRÃÆ'Ã ©sumÃÆ'Ã © Marketing Management, 14th Edition - Kotler Keller26673 Words Ã |Ã 107 PagesThe smart competitor must design and deliver offerings for well-defined target markets. II. The value Chain Michael Porter of Harvard has proposed the value chain as a tool for identifying ways to create more customer value. According to this model, every firm is a synthesis of activities performed to design, produce, and market, deliver, and support its product. The value chain identifies nine strategically relevant activities-five primary and four support activities-that create valueRead MoreAccounting 1-4 Chapter100452 Words Ã |Ã 402 Pagespersonal legal liability: Corporation. Tax advantages: Sole proprietorship and partnership. Easier to transfer ownership: Corporation. Action Plan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Know which organizational form best matches the business type, size, and preferences of the owner(s). Action Plans give you tips about how to approach the problem. Related exercise material: BE1-1 and Do it! 1-1. Users and Uses of Financial Information The purpose of financial information is to provide inputs for decision making. AccountingRead MoreKraft Annual Report99993 Words Ã |Ã 400 Pagescharter) 52-2284372 Virginia (State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.) Three Lakes Drive, Northfield, Illinois 60093-2753 (Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code) Registrant s telephone number, including area code: 847-646-2000 Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: Name of each exchange on which registered Title of each class Class A Common Stock, no par value New York Stock Exchange Securities registered pursuantRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagesand permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo copying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers
Question: Discuss About The Private Label Branded Foods In Australia? Answer: Introducation In order to conduct performance evaluation of any firm operating in certain industry, the importance of top down as well as bottom up analysis is inevitable. These are the mechanism to represent information and plan strategies with a broader point of view keeping prime focus on overall performance of the firm. The top down analysis consists of the process that involves looking into broader view at first and then enters the system slowly in order to gain insight similar to backward calculation. The system is broken into subsystems consecutively until the expected core insight is obtained (Biswas et al. 2012). It helps to give an overview regarding the design, formulation of strategies and analysis of performance. The bottom up approach of analysis focuses on detailed specification of elements in the first stance and then they are linked to form the bigger subsystems. Adding them up further the larger system is obtained. It is upward moving process of analyzing and integrating information. This report is designed to present a top down and bottom up analysis of two Australian leading firms in the retail industry, Wesfarmers and Woolworth. The motive behind this paper is to portray how the economic situation in Australia and world are influencing their operation and how their performance is influencing the national as well as global retail industry. The simultaneity and combined effect of their operation are intended to be captured and depicted in the discussion here. Top Down Analysis In order to conduct top down analysis, the panoramic view of the national economy should be elaborated with prime focus on the impact on retail industry. The economic condition of the nation reinforces the financial performance of the companies and that further reinstates the health of national and global retail market. Having one of the major mixed market economies among developed countries, Australia has been able to carry out a record of consistent growth over almost more than twenty-six years. The secret behind this consistency and over time improvement is the stable economic condition that further brings forth low inflation, less unemployment, steady state growth, flexible exchange rate and steady cash rate operating in the money market. As per the current economic snapshot as produced by Reserve Bank of Australia, the GDP of Australia is 1.205 trillion USD in 2016, inflation rate is 1.9%, unemployment rate is 5.6% with an employment rate of growth is 2%, Cash rate is 1.5% and overall economic growth is 1.8% (RBA 2017). Over the years, Australia has been blessed with a steady GDP, low inflation, low unemployment and steady exchange rate. The economic performance of the country lay the ground of the health growth of the retail industry. Mostly dominated by service sector the nation is globally larger provider of consumer goods and services. The existing and growing market of the country as well as the cross border expansion in demand, there rae ample opportunities for its retail industry to grow. The growth of population partly boosted by increasing migration, increasing employment due to the expansion of the service sector have actually resulted in increase in income that further enhanced the aggregate demand of the economy. More the aggregate demand, more is the production and greater is the growth of the national economic performance. The economic growth owing to these positive factors has also benefitted the supermarket and grocery services included in the retail that experienced increase in demand and sales. The globalization and liberal economic policies of Australia along with a stable exchange rate, the scope of international trade has increased much more in the past decade. As the RBA maintains a stable cash rate, the inflation is controlled in the country. At the same time, the creation of jobs in the economy injects more money into the economy. Thus, people have more money to spend. As the aggregate demand is rising in the domestic market, the production has increased . Exchange rate is AUD 0.80 per USD. This has helped in keeping the economy stable even during large crisis periods, such as, the global financial crisis during 2008 (Mortimer 2013). It also has helped in improving the international trade position of Australia. RBA follows appreciation or depreciation of the currency as per the situation in international trade market in order to response and cater to the international market needs (Baumohl 2012). When exports needed to be increased, RBA has declined the exchange rate and depreciated the currency. It has been able to control inflation and has made the exports of Australia cheaper in the global market. This accelerated the exports and that further generates more competition among the domestic producers. It has helped in increase in production, thereby increasing GDP. The supermarket industry has also benefitted from this economic condition. The increase in demand in the domestic as well as in the international market has helped in the growth of the industry. The retail industry of Australia is one of the most growing and established industries in the country. It contributes around 29% in the GDP of the country (Dwivedi et al. 2012). Wesfarmers and Woolworths are two leading giants in the supermarkets retail sector of Australia. These two conglomerates attract the maximum market share. Woolworths has captured the highest market share in the supermarket and grocery retail in Australia, followed by Coles, which is the supermarket division of Wesfarmers (Roy Morgan Research 2016). These two companies have captured almost 70% of the market. Thus, if the economy is hit by any shock or recession, the businesses of the supermarkets will be affected too and that would disturb their market shares. Woolworths: Woolworths Limited owns Woolworth chain operating in the supermarket. It owns position the Australian Stock Exchange as WOW. The company came into operation on 5th December, 1924. Over 92 years, the company has experienced difficulties and challenges, but in the last two decades, it has captured the leading position in the market. The company operates more than 1000 stores across the country. Among those, 968 stores are supermarkets and 19 are convenience stores. In 2015, the revenue of the company was AUD 42.132 billion, with a number of employees of 111,000 (Woolworths.com.au 2017). The economic growth of the country has contributed in the growth of Woolworths. The company had focused on all the sections of the economy to boost its sales, Hence, as the employment level had increased and wage growth occurred at the level of 1.9%, the aggregate demand had increased in the country leading to a growth in production and as well as level of employment increased too. Wesfarmers It came into operation in 1914 as cooperative firm for the farmers of the West Australia. Currently the company is one of the largest stock market enlisted companies of Australia with ample business companies operating under the umbrella brand. Some of the other industries the company has invested in are: supermarkets, liquor, hotels and convenience stores; home improvement; office supplies; department stores; and an industrials division with businesses in chemicals, energy and fertilizers, industrial and safety products and coal (Lewis and Huber 2015). Since inception the company has gained a lot of support from the internal and external environment of Australia and has grown to be a super power in the recent times To deal with the dynamics of the economies and the ever changing policies of the government the company keeps on changing and innovating the process of operation. Sustainability is one of the major changes that have been incorporated by all the industries that Wesfarmers have invested in. Wesfarmers are also a big employer there are almost 220,000 people who get remuneration of $8-9 billion annually which in turn is contributing by giving purchasing power in the hands of the people (Trevena et al. 2015). e. The companys contribution to the economy in terms of employment, generation of purchasing power and creating of demand for other goods and services is significant. The taxes paid by the company every year are collectively responsible for the betterment of the society and the government (Olstad et al. 2017). Increasing demand is a direct reason for the companys growth and rapid expansion since the inflation rate in Australia is at a rate that is not alarming the flowing of goods in the economy is common. Australia competing The Company has invested in industries that face higher demands. Supermarket like Coles being one of the biggest chain in Australian economy, sources that kind of higher demand even amidst existent competition among multinational brands like Woolworths and Aldi etc Hence the supermarket group of Wesfarmers the Coles group is continuously expanding the business and focusing on improving the service and meets the expectations of the consumers Coles group follow a pattern where they are pushed to lease new, usually smaller- arrangement, stores to preserve customer patronage, but moving out of their older sites is rarely feasible. In order to change with the changing economy the company is trying to refurbish their retail locations. This could also mean that the company i s opting for a rebranding. The Coles group are also adding extensive floor space to a business. To keep up to the changing demand and taste in the customer preference the inventories are continuously refreshed and re stocked which includes a lot of investment (Hatfield-Dodds et al 2015). Bottom Up Analysis This section prepares a bottom-up analysis of the two of Australias retail giant companies: Wesfarmers Limited and Woolworths Limited. Woolworths Limitedis one of the major Australian company operating in retail industry of both Australia and New Zealand. It is the second largest company in the retail industry as per revenue generated. The revenue of the firm being AU$59 billion. (2016) following the Wesfarmers and it is operating in Bella Vista (Parmenter 2015). Wesfarmers Limitedis a retailer conglomerate producing consumer service fro the Australian from 1914, operating in Perth, Western Australia. Other than retail, the company also focuses on coal mining, chemical and fertilizer production, safety products and so on generating revenue of total AU$65.98 billion (2016) owing to the Australian economy as the largest company revenue wise. It is also providing largest employment to Australian population. Irrespective of the industry and sector operating in, the financial performance of companies depends on several factors that determine the short term as well as long term scenario. The indicators of financial performance of any company can be categorized into two aspect: Financial Key Indicators and Non-Financial key indicators. The financial indicators of performance include broad range of components like : revenue, net profit, current ratio, debt financing, operating cash flow, net sales, book value per share, return on equity, return on invested capital (ROIC), earning per share and debt-to-net profit ratio (Marr 2012). Based on the indicators the information of the two companies are derived from their respective financial report and analyzed to track the performance trajectory, position in the said industry with prime focus given on the current financial operation of them. As per the financial year of 2016-17, the firm has managed to generate revenue equivalent to AU$ 65.98 billion compared to the last year, which was recorded to be AU$ 62.44 billion in 2015 (Olstad, Crawford, Abbott, McNaughton, SMhurchu., Pollard and Ball 2017). There has been 5.6% growth in the revenue from the last financial year. In domain of gross capital expenditure, Strong retention of discipline is captured in the capital expenditure which has been $1,899 million recently. This is was $340 million or 15.2 per cent lower than the figures reported in the last financial year and the fall is owing to the lower expenditure incurred on the newly opened stores (Ghosh and Wu 2012.). The firm has recorded $2440 million as net profit after tax for the 2015-16 financial years. The recent estimate of it is reported to be $2353 million showing a 3.6% fall in the net profit in the recent years. The firm manages to earn 209.5 cents as basic earnings per share. This has been 216.1 cents in th e previous financial year (Olstad et al. 2017). Return on average shareholders equity has been 9.6% falling only by 0.2 % as per the 9.8% rate of return in the last financial years. One of the significant indicators of companys financial performance is return on equity on the investment made by the firm (Damodaran 2016). The importance behind such indicator is that it makes a demonstration of the ability that companies have to generate profit from the equities of the shareholders. This is also termed as net asset, which is received by subtracting liabilities from the asset. The mode of usability of investment funds by the company is well captured in this indicator and helps in making comparison of the profitability of the company within the industry of its operation. Greater the return on equity, greater the attraction for the investors for the company since higher return is confirmed. The total operative cash flow of the retail firm is reported to be $3365 million as compared to $3791 million in the past year. This has reduced the operating cash flow per share also (Chiew, Graham, Grundy, Harwood and McCallum 2015.). This has been 299.2 cents compared to the previous estimate of 335.1 cents showing a 10% fall in the estimation. The net debt has increased remarkably within just a year $7103 million from $6209 million in the last year. The company has accelerated the net debt to equity by 2.31% compared to the last year (Keith 2012.). The recent figure is captured to be 30.9% contrast to the 25.1% previously. This has led to increased deficit financing o f the firm. The major sources of debt and financing have been: bank (38%), US bonds (11%) , euro bonds (24%) and domestic bonds (27%) (Tennen and Lockie 2012). The free cash flow of the conglomerate has been $1233 million recently falling from $1893 million in previous financial year marking a 3.5% fall in the indicator. Dividend paid to per share capture the entire picture of the shareholder return of the firm. The firm is focused to deliver increased payment to dividends subject to groups earnings, cash flows and available credits. The recent estimate of it has been 186 cents compared to 200 cents in 2015-16. Woolworth: The firm has been able to generate operating revenue of the firm in recent year recorded at $58.27 million as compared to $59 million in the last financial year. The estimation show negligible decline in the performance of the indicators. Sales of the group have been worth $53.47 million compared to $58.81 million in the past year (Miller and Power 2013). This implies decline in the sales of the company over the recent financial year. Operating cash flow $2,357.5 million falling steeply from the last year figure of $3,345.1 million. The net profit after tax of the group has been $2,347.9 million in 2016 as compared to the $2,137.4 million in 2015. This implies the company has been able to capture profit for the last financial year activities. There has been remarkable decline in the total dividend payment per share. In 2016 it has been captured at 77.0 cents compared to139.0 cents in 2015 (Aldazabal, Ibanez, Quevedo and Uranga 2012).. This is due to fall in the profit margin of the firm in presence of increased cost and decreased revenue. Basic earnings per share has fallen to 97.7 cents in 2016 from the 170.8 cents in the last year owing to the fall in the revenue of the firm as a whole. In 2016, book value per share has been -287.89 cents compared to -271.03 cents in 2015. Current ratio of the company has been 0.39 % in 2016 compared to 0.41 % in the 2015. The company shows growing capital expenditure to EBITDA. The figure in 2016 is 57.96% as compared to the 45.24% in 2015 (Vernon 2012.). Other than financial indicators, there are several non financial indicators that impacts the overall performance of any company financially. These companies might not be reported in the financial statement but they do posses much of importance in the growth of the company over time. They dont impact the cash flow of the company directly but exerts much impact on the type and amount of them (Landier, Sauvagnat, Sraer and Thesmar 2013). The success of business beyond the cash and debt lies in the market share, position, brand image, recognition and quality of services provided to the customers. The relationship maintained with customers along with the services provided earns a company better gear to the production and sales of it. Most common non-financial aspects or performance are measures of foot traffic, employee turnover, number of customers and repeat customers and other qualitative metrics. Accounting ratio is the parameter of companys performance that makes evaluation of the efficiency and profitability of the operations of the company based on the financial statement or report. Also known as financial ratio of the company, the accounting ratio helps in providing a way to express relationship between one data point and other with making provision of useful comparisons. This ratio analysis is major component to form the fundamental analysis of overall performance of the company. The accounting ratio analysis of both the company is pretty high owing the facts of being leading firm in the retail industry of Australia. Recommendation The above analysis clearly depicts the important position that the firms has been able to gain in the global as well as national retain industry. Owing to their contribution to the GDP of Australia, their performance plays pivotal role in nations economic growth. The contributors to economic growth are the growth of GDP, growth and expansion of the retail market, demand and sales consequently The growth of net export is also one of the important parameter that contributes to the enhancement of overall economic growth. The economic growth and growth of the firms actually reinforces each other (Richards, Lawrence, Loong and Burch 2012). Thus, any economic uprising can favor their expansion and growth just as any negative atmosphere can exert downward influences in their performances. The first recommendation regarding maintaining good health of these firms as well as entire retail sector would be to stabilize economy as much as it is possible (Roy 2016.). Detection of negativity and st ringent macroeconomic policies with microeconomic analyses and detailing can help to ascertain stability in the economy. The global market scenario should be positive and favorable too in order to make them grow. More the demand more is the production and sales which counts into more of consumption expenditure, export revenue that increases the nominal GDP of Australia. The trade volume increase too. The opportunity of foreign direct as well as portfolio investment in supermarket grocery is another important recommendation that Australian government can follow. More investment would help the firms bear the capital expenditures as the cash inflows will rise due to autonomous increase in the capital base made by the investments. Expansion of stores, outlets or even diversification can be din since the firms are much popular in both the domestic and international market. these would help the firms generate more revenue and promote more sales. Some of the fiscal policies and monetary po licies can help the firms boost its financial performance. Reduction in tax, flexible exchange rate, lower interest rates ca enhances the financial indicators of the firms. Greater the revenue and lesser the cost in terms of tax, depreciation, higher will be the profit of the firms. This allows the firms to accumulate capital for further business expansionary plan. Moreover the indicators like earning per share, dividend per share would increase that would indirectly consolidate the shareholders trust. This also would allow the firms to create pool of funds. Conclusion The economic indicators are of crucial importance in the growth of retail industry of Australia. If any of the economic indicators goes through a shock or a sudden change, then the business of the supermarkets will be affected. If the exchange rate increases, the currency of Australia will appreciate, making the exports costlier and imports cheaper. In this case, the export revenue of these supermarkets would go down and as the level of imports would increase and would be available to the people, the sales of the domestic products would also go down. This would affect the growth of the economy. Similarly, if the level of unemployment increases, the sales of goods and services would fall and the revenue of these supermarkets would fall too. From the above discussion and analysis of the financial performance of the firm a common trend of declination has been found in the recent year of 2016 as compared to the last financial year. Both the companies form the maximum share of the total r etail transaction of Australia owing much importance to the entire GDP of the nation contributed through growth in the retail sector. Even amidst such performance level, Wesfarmers has been able to take over Woolworth and become Australias largest and worlds 21st largest revenue generator. References Aldazabal, G., Ibanez, L.E., Quevedo, F. and Uranga, A.M., 2012. D-branes at singularities: A bottom-up approach to the string embedding of the standard model.Journal of High Energy Physics,2000(08), p.002. Baumohl, B., 2012.The secrets of economic indicators: hidden clues to future economic trends and investment opportunities. FT Press. Biswas, A., Bayer, I.S., Biris, A.S., Wang, T., Dervishi, E. and Faupel, F., 2012. Advances in topdown and bottomup surface nanofabrication: Techniques, applications future prospects.Advances in colloid and interface science,170(1), pp.2-27. Bodie, Z., 2013.Investments. McGraw-Hill. Damodaran, A., 2016.Damodaran on valuation: security analysis for investment and corporate finance(Vol. 324). John Wiley Sons. Dwivedi, A., Merrilees, B., Miller, D. and Herington, C., 2012. Brand, value and relationship equities and loyalty-intentions in the Australian supermarket industry.Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services,19(5), pp.526-536. Ghosh, D. and Wu, A., 2012. The effect of positive and negative financial and nonfinancial performance measures on analysts' recommendations.Behavioral Research in Accounting,24(2), pp.47-64. Hatfield-Dodds, S., Schandl, H., Adams, P.D., Baynes, T.M., Brinsmead, T.S., Bryan, B.A., Chiew, F.H., Graham, P.W., Grundy, M., Harwood, T. and McCallum, R., 2015. Australia is' free to choose'economic growth and falling environmental pressures.Nature,527(7576), p.49. Keith, S., 2012. Coles, Woolworths and the local.Locale: The Australasian-Pacific Journal of Regional Food Studies,2, pp.47-81. Landier, A., Sauvagnat, J., Sraer, D. and Thesmar, D., 2013. Bottom-up corporate governance.Review of Finance, pp.161-201. Lewis, T. and Huber, A., 2015. A revolution in an eggcup? Supermarket wars, celebrity chefs and ethical consumption.Food, Culture Society,18(2), pp.289-307. Marr, B., 2012.Key Performance Indicators (KPI): The 75 measures every manager needs to know. Pearson UK. Miller, P. and Power, M., 2013. Accounting, organizing, and economizing: Connecting accounting research and organization theory.Academy of Management Annals,7(1), pp.557-605. Mortimer, G., 2013. FactCheck: is our grocery market one of the most concentrated in the world?.The Conversation, (12). Olstad, D.L., Crawford, D.A., Abbott, G., McNaughton, S.A., Le, H.N., Mhurchu, C.N., Pollard, C. and Ball, K., 2017. The impact of financial incentives on participants food purchasing patterns in a supermarket-based randomized controlled trial.International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity,14(1), p.115. Parmenter, D., 2015.Key performance indicators: developing, implementing, and using winning KPIs. John Wiley Sons. Pc.gov.au, 2016.The economic contribution of small to medium-sized grocery retailers to the Australian economy, with a particular focus on Western Australia. [online] www.pc.gov.au. Availableat:https://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/retail-tenancies/submissions/82_national_association_of_retail_grocers_of_australia/sub082.pdf [Accessed 22 Sep. 2017]. RBA, 2017.Key Economic Indicators Snapshot. [online] Reserve Bank of Australia. Available at: https://www.rba.gov.au/snapshots/economy-indicators-snapshot/ [Accessed 22 Sep. 2017]. Richards, C., Lawrence, G., Loong, M. and Burch, D., 2012. A toothless chihuahua? The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, neoliberalism and supermarket power in Australia.Rural Society,21(3), pp.250-263. Roy Morgan Research, 2016.Supermarket weep: Woolies share continues to fall and Coles and Aldi split the proceeds. [online] Roy Morgan Research. Available at: https://www.roymorgan.com/findings/7021-woolworths-coles-aldi-iga-supermarket-market-shares-australia-september-2016--201610241542 [Accessed 22 Sep. 2017]. Tennent, R. and Lockie, S., 2012. Production relations under GLOBALG. AP: the relative influence of standards and retail market structure.Sociologia ruralis,52(1), pp.31-47. Trevena, H., Neal, B., Dunford, E., Haskelberg, H. and Wu, J.H., 2015. A comparison of the sodium content of supermarket private-label and branded foods in Australia.Nutrients,7(8), pp.7027-7041. Vernon, P., 2012. Shopping Towns Australia.Fabrications,22(1), pp.102-121. Woolworths.com.au, 2017.Welcome to Woolworths. [online] Woolworths.com.au. Available at: https://www.woolworths.com.au/ [Accessed 22 Sep. 2017].
Question: Discuss about the Training Improving Skills of Labours. Answer: Development of skill is a significant driver for addressing the reduction of poverty with the help of improving productivity, employability as well as helping to develop sustainable enterprise. The productivity maximization is achieved when the labourers are skilled and there exists health manpower with up gradation of technology as well as innovative practices. The expansion in productivity is ascribed to differed reasons, for example, new innovation, new machines, better administration rehearses; interest in plant and hardware and innovation, occupation wellbeing change in the ability level of specialists; full scale financial strategies, work economic situations, business condition and open interest in foundation and training (Mendez et al. 2016). In this manner, it is apparent that expertise improvement is only one element important for the profitability development and it should be an essential piece of the advancement strategies. The arrangements ought to address the levels of improvement and need and prerequisite of different divisions. Other than this the aptitude arrangement ought to concentrate on enhancing access, quality and pertinence of preparing for various portions and areas. The proof from created nations proposes that interest in instruction and aptitudes helps economy to move to high development parts and break the low wage, low ability advancement disorder. The present of skilled labour within the organisation helps in achieving the growth as well as the productivity of the organisation. Multi skilled labourers can be obtained by providing the labourers with skill, education, knowledge and experience. Training and education helps in improving the skills of the labourers. The labourers can achieve the cognitive or knowledge skills, Psychomotor or professional skill and affective skills (Vally et al. 2015). The model of empowerment education led emphasis on training distinction, education provided on skills of competency based and predicting the outcome of the behaviours of labourers. Labourers develop the power to think critically and acquire the skill of decision making that is effective for them. Labourers need to comprehend and implement security techniques, legitimate instruments and defensive gear for performing particular assignments as an aspect of their responsibilities aptitudes preparing. They additionally need training for rectifying hazards that they watch and to be acquainted with inward organization methodology, as per the wellbeing and wellbeing laws and controls which apply to their range of work (Fatonade 2014). Correspondingly, chiefs and supervisors must know about the physical, compound and psychosocial risks exhibit in their working environments and in addition the social, authoritative and modern relations calculates that might be included in the formation of these dangers and in their adjustment. In this way, picking up information and aptitudes of a specialized sort and also authoritative, correspondence and critical thinking abilities are all important targets for education as well as training. As of late, education on health and safety of labours has b een affected by improvements in theories of education, especially speculations of grown-up learning. There are distinctive parts of these improvements, for example, empowerment education, participative learning and agreeable learning (Windisch 2016). All offer the principle that the best time for adult to learn is when they are performing the practical works gathering experiences. Past the transmission of particular bits of information or aptitudes, successful instruction requires the improvement of basic speculation and a comprehension of the setting of practices and methods for connecting what is found out in the classroom to activity in the working environment. These standards appear to be particularly proper to work environment security and wellbeing, where the reasons for dangerous conditions and sicknesses and wounds are frequently a mix of natural and physical variables, human conduct and the social setting. These principles could be translated in education programme. For translating it in education program objectives of four categories are been formulated: Information objectives help the labourers to gain specific knowledge. This specific knowledge gained by the labours helps them to apply them at the situation when it is most necessary. For example, in chemical industry knowledge and effect of organic solvents on skin and Central Nervous System is useful (Hickson and Ellis 2014). Behavioural objectives are the competencies as well as the skills that the labours learn through education or practical training. For instance the capability for interpreting the chemical data sheets and the skill to know how to carry and lift the heavier object safely is useful. Attitude objectives help the labours to achieve the education of completing the task with safe performance. Most of the time labours after working for many years develops a fundamental idea that no accidents or harms can happen to them in the work sites. For example not taking the safety precautions like wearing safety belt and helmet in the job site can cause harms if an accident takes place Social action objective helps the labours in analysing problems then identify the cause of the problem, proposing solution and planning for the steps of action against it. The safety as well as health professionals training fluctuates generally among nations, contingent upon the necessities of working populace and nation's assets and structures. Professional training is focused in undergrad and postgraduate college programs, yet these shift in accessibility in various parts of globe. Degree projects might be offered for experts in word related prescription and nursing and word related wellbeing might be joined into the preparation of general professionals and of essential care and general wellbeing attendants. The quantity of degree-allowing programs for word related hygienists has expanded significantly (El-Gohary, Aziz and Abdel-Khalek 2017). In any case, there remains a solid interest for short courses and less exhaustive preparing for cleanliness specialists, a large number of whom have gotten their essential preparing at work specifically enterprises. There is intense requirement for training of safety personnel in world. While greater college pre pared and credentialed doctors, medical caretakers and hygienists will without a doubt be invited in these nations, it is in any case practical to expect that numerous wellbeing administrations will keep on being conveyed by essential social insurance specialists. These individuals require preparing in the connection amongst work and wellbeing, in the acknowledgment of the real security and wellbeing dangers related with the kind of work carried on in their district, in fundamental study and testing procedures, in the utilization of the referral arrange accessible in their area for associated cases with word related ailment and in wellbeing training and hazard correspondence methods (Dawood et al. 2014). Experience also helps the labours for becoming skilful. When the labours are working with the experienced professionals in practical field they get the idea of the specific work. They also encounter various stages which is helpful for gaining experience in job site. With that experience in future they are capable of becoming skilled labours and increase the productivity of the organisation (Marope, Chakroun and Holmes 2015). The skilled labours increase the flexibility. An organization having labours of multi skilled has workforce which is flexible, that gives the business the capacity to plan and orchestrate labourers for best suits to the necessities of business. Labours can make up for employees who are absent as well as work in any region of business which requires expanded labour whenever, and for unfixed time. This enables the entrepreneur to keep up generation levels under numerous situations. Skilled labours also helps in decreasing the cost of labours. A business having labour force who are skilled can work with a less labours that is important to direct business. Specialists who are talented in just a single territory of the business may sit without moving while at the same time sitting tight for work to wind up noticeably accessible. A multi-gifted workforce moves with the workload as opposed to sitting tight for the work to come to them (Janks 2014). This outcomes in less sit out of gear work hours, which diminishes the cost to the entrepreneur. Therefore providing training to the labours and making them skilled by providing them required education ultimately helps the organisation in carrying out the business successfully. References Dawood, N., Miller, G., Patacas, J. and Kassem, M., 2014. Combining Serious Games and 4D Modelling for Construction Health and Safety Training. InComputing in Civil and Building Engineering (2014)(pp. 2087-2094). El-Gohary, K.M., Aziz, R.F. and Abdel-Khalek, H.A., 2017. Engineering Approach Using ANN to Improve and Predict Construction Labor Productivity under Different Influences.Journal of Construction Engineering and Management,143(8), p.04017045. Fatonade, O.O., 2014. The nature, types and standards of training policy for site operatives by local building contractors in Ghana.nature,6(3). Hickson, B.G. and Ellis, L.A., 2014. Factors affecting Construction Labour Productivity in Trinidad and Tobago.The Journal of the Association of Professional engineers of Trinidad and Tobago,42(1), pp.4-11. Janks, H., 2014, January. Globalisation, diversity, and education: A South African perspective. InThe Educational Forum(Vol. 78, No. 1, pp. 8-25). Taylor Francis Group. Marope, P.T.M., Chakroun, B. and Holmes, K.P., 2015.Unleashing the potential: transforming technical and vocational education and training. UNESCO Publishing. Melndez, E., Anne Visser, M., Valenzuela, A. and Theodore, N., 2016. Day labourers' work related injuries: an assessment of risks, choices, and policies.International Migration,54(3), pp.5-19. Vally, Z., Murray, L., Tomlinson, M. and Cooper, P.J., 2015. The impact of dialogic book?sharing training on infant language and attention: a randomized controlled trial in a deprived South African community.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,56(8), pp.865-873. Windisch, H.C., 2016. How to motivate adults with low literacy and numeracy skills to engage and persist in learning: A literature review of policy interventions.International Review of Education,62(3), pp.279-297.
Tuesday, April 21, 2020
Light Pollution: Our Vanishing Night Paper Nowadays, we have engineered the night to receive us by filling it with light. Nevertheless, this engineering comes with serious consequence, that is, light pollution, also known as phytoplankton or luminous pollution. This is a form of environmental degradation, which results from the excessive artificial lightings. Its sources include street lamps, neon signs, billboards, offices, and illuminated sporting venues. Instead of directly lightening objects, these artificial beams refract and scatter around everywhere unexpectedly. Hence, they not only obscure the starring night but cause damage to both our environment and human bodies. Therefore, light pollution is not even more a scientific issue to experts but a global problem to everyone. According to the International Dark-Sky Association (IDA), this environmental pollution can be classified into four types: light trespass, over- illumination, glare, and light clutter. The first type is light trespass, which occurs as unnecessary light enters ones property. When an intense beam outside causes sleep deprivation, this condition can be called light trespass. For instance, Hong Kong has a serious light trespass problem due to countless luminous ornaments of skyscrapers. Despite some 30 to 40 citizens annually complaints about light abuse, Hong Kong still ignites the night sky to demonstrate its prosperity. The second type is over-illumination, which stems from the excessive waste of light. Improper lighting designs in the workplace, inadequate lighting maintenance, and 24-hour commercial advertisements all contribute to over-illumination. We will write a custom essay sample on Light Pollution: Our Vanishing Night specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Light Pollution: Our Vanishing Night specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Light Pollution: Our Vanishing Night specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A survey conducted by the U. S. Department of Energy Source suggests that some 30 to 60 percent of energy is wasted by commercial advertising uses, two times than average U. S. Residential consumption. The third type is glare, which can be further divided into three classifications. First, blind glare describes an effect caused by staring into the Sun, leading to completely blinding and temporary or permanent vision deficiencies. Second, disability glare leaves significant reduction in Sight abilities by oncoming vehicle beams, or refracted glow in the fog as well as reflections from the printed. Third, the discomfort glare dose doesnt induce a dangerous situation, though it is irritating at best. The last type is light clutter, excessive groupings of lights. Clutter may generate confusion, distract from obstacles, and potentially induce accidents. For instance, the poor-designed street lights distract drivers and cause injuries. Besides, clutter may present a hazard, specifically in aviation environment. For instance, aircraft collision avoidance signals may be confused with grouping commercial lightings. Intriguingly, few know that light, a powerful biological force, influences not only human but both plants and animals as well. Plants acquire light not only for energy supply but for the induction of flowering. Each species has its specific ecological optimum curve, which describes the relationship between light intensity and growth. Outdoor lightings on plants result in abnormal individuals with delayed loss of leaves or accelerated branch growth. To the plants near street lights, they even have production in second bloom in autumn. Similarly, light pollution induces adverse effects on animals. It may disorient animals and disrupt their biological rhythms, which are related to the alternation of day and nights of the seasons. As National Geographic Magazine mentions, fewer and fewer of nesting sea turtles, which show a natural predisposition in the dark, lay eggs on sandy beaches. Their hatchings, which gravitate toward the more reflective sea horizon, find themselves confused by artificial lighting behind the beach. In England, some swans even put on fat more rapidly than usual for wintering and migrate to Siberian early. Since long artificial days induce early breeding, a wide range of birds shuffle their migration schedules. Under the long- term influence of light pollution, nocturnal mammals including desert rodents, fruit bats, opossums, and badgers forage more cautiously because they have become easier targets for predators. As for other creatures, we also have a genetically light-determined clock to control the day-night rhythm in the secretion of melatonin, which in turn affects the sleeping-waking rhythm, the movement rhythm and our brain activities. Disturbances in the day-night rhythm can have physical and psychological effects, such as jet-leg. Overall, changes in light level are like the alteration of gravity. It destroys the balance in our ecosystem. Since light pollution triggers serious environmental problem, issues on how to reduce it become vital and are discussed radically. The Hong Kong Night Sky Brightness Moon tutoring Network (INS) considers the rule of thumb for reducing light pollution is using lighting reasonably: do not set up unnecessary lighting and turn off lights which are not in use. Simply turning if the light when we leave a room can achieve the target. Other approaches include reducing as many useless outdoor lighting as possible, modifying the existing lightings into dark-sky friendly devices, and choosing astronomical- friendly lighting sources. For government and organizations, turning off the neon signboards at midnight, and reducing decorative lights of commercial buildings are all possible approaches. Take Japan as a demonstration. In 1996, Ministry of the Environment guided Japanese to turn off all lightings during the coming of comet Haystack. Besides, saving energy and reducing eight pollution can both be achieved by turning off useless lightings. The Earth Hour campaign in Sydney, for example, successfully assembles two millions people to turn off their lightings for an hour at night. It not only results in 10. 2% of reduction in energy consumption but promotes the message of preventing global warming at the same time. With efforts spreading around the globe recently, more and more cities and even entire countries have committed themselves to reducing light pollution. To sum up, light abuse not only induces problems for astronomers but impacts our daily lives. Living in our own making glare, we cut ourselves off from the light of the stars, disrupt the biological rhythms of day and night, and harm the ecosystem. Whats worse, we gradually neglect the treasure that heaven offers at night- the astonishing galaxies arching ahead. In a very real sense, light pollution causes us to lose sight of our true place in the universe and to forget the scale of our being. While our planet will likely never return to its natural state of darkness, we still can make efforts to help decrease over-illumination.